Kundali is the Hindi for what we call 'Horoscope' in English. It is a pretty widely used thing in astrology. It is based on the fact that heavenly bodies and their positions at the time of an event effects how the event goes on.
So in the case of the birth of a child, we record when he/she is born, at what place and other details. Astrologers, then on the basis of position of prominent stars, 7 planets, Sun and the Moon about that time create a chart, similar to the image you posted (number of charts is not limited to 1).
Horoscope is the prediction of major or not so major personal attributes/events in our life.
In Vedic Hinduism astrology based upon the condition/position of celestial bodies is used to predict such events. This is coupled with personal attributes of the person concerned. These attributes notably are: i) time of birth ii) date of birth iii) place of birth amongst others if any.